Puglian Cuisine

Chickpeas & Greens

Chickpeas and Greens

In kitchens in the heel of Italy’s boot necessity has long been the mother of invention.

In a rural and traditionally hard-up part of Italy, Puglia’s cuisine is classic cucina povera (cuisine of poverty). This term might sound bleak and austere, but the spirit of cucina povera is improvising and making the best of what you’ve got from season to season. This limited palate gives rise to wonderful creativity in the kitchen. In summer the emphasis is on greens and fish, while in winter homemade pasta is preferred.

It also helps that the region’s staples like olive oil, vegetables, bread, pasta, seafood and lamb are of impeccable quality, which shines through in simple dishes.

Often flat and stark, Puglia is perhaps the most fertile agricultural region in the country. Here, through fierce summers and soft winters, olive groves, vines and durum wheat crops thrive.

Puglia contributes a hefty proportion of Italy’s wine and pasta, and also produces fantastic seasonal vegetables. As a rare Italian haven for vegetarians, a hallmark of the cuisine in Puglia is the unusual combination of fresh greens with pasta.

But the true symbol of Puglia’s food culture is the olive tree. Puglia produces 40% of Italy’s olive oil. Olive groves cover vast swathes of the landscape—there are 240,000 farms and 60 million individual trees—and if you wander through one of these farms you’ll see wizened and twisted old trees with thick and knobbly trunks that give you an idea of just how old this industry is.

Puglia, Olives

Olive tree cultivation in Puglia dates back to the start of the region’s colonization by the ancient Greeks, some 5,000 years ago. But the industry really took shape in the 1700s when tax breaks were handed down by Charles of Bourbon to any landowners who made space for olive trees. There are four EU Denomination of Origin of Production areas (DOPs): Collina di Brindisi, Dauno, Terra D’Otranto and Terra di Bari.

What’s exciting is the way the flavor of the oil changes from place to place. Collina di Brindisi oil is often a pale yellow hue and has a slightly fruity taste, while Terra d’Otranto’s product is a darker green and has a herby bouquet.

When it comes to pasta, the most popular variety in Puglia is orecchiette. It is shaped like Orecchiette_al_Pomodoroa small ear, hence the name, and is great at holding sauce. Traditionally, orecchiette pasta is served with anything from horsemeat sauce to turnip greens. Strascinati has the shape of dry curled up leaves and once only furnished the tables of poor families, but is now served at the top restaurants. It goes best with a broccoli and chili pepper sauce.

On the coast, of course, the cuisine draws from the Ionian and Adriatic seas. In Bari for instance the local specialty is a baked rice dish with mussels and potatoes.

Puglia, Puglia BreadIn the interior, where the land is rockier and less arable, herds of sheep are a common sight. Here in winter, warming lamb stews are served with crusty bread such as the the DOP Altamura, which comes in rustic circular loaves.

Morocco’s UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Morocco’s landscape is awash with ancient architecture; incredible structures which tell stories of this multifaceted country’s past. From fort to fountain, mosque to medina, every corner of Morocco is steeped in bewitching architectural history. Since 1981, UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has been awarding sites around Morocco its official seal of approval, naming them World Heritage Sites, and we have chosen our five favorites.

Quick glossary

 Medina: A distinct section of a city, often North African. Typically walled and with labyrinthine streets and alleys.

 Kasbah: Sometimes used in the same context as ‘medina’. It can also mean a type of Arabic fortress.

 Souk, or souq: An open-air market, either in North Africa or the Middle East. Souks are divided into specialist quarters e.g. gold souk, spice souk, etc. These are collectively known as a souk.

 Ksar: North African Arabic term for a castle.

 Madrasa: Any type of educational institution.

1. Medina of Fez

The Medina of Fez gained recognition by the UNESCO World Heritage Organization because “[It] is considered as one of the most extensive and best conserved historic towns of the Arab-Muslim world.”¹. Fez, Morocco’s third-largest city, is in fact home to two phenomenal old medinas. Fez Medina, MoroccoFes el Bali is the larger, and the oldest. It was established as the capital of the Idrisid dynasty between 789 and 808 AD. During the rule of the Marinids, in 1276, a new town, Fez Jedid, was constructed. Both areas gained UNESCO status in 1981.

The Medina of Fez is gifted with ornate madrasas, palaces, mosques and fountains, and is also the largest motor-free city anywhere on earth. The University of Al-Karaouine was built inside the Medina of Fez in 859 AD, and is still going strong to this day – as such, it is recognized as the oldest university in the world.

2. Historic City of Meknes

Though Meknes was built in the 11th century (it was actually a military settlement at first, created by the Almoravids), it only saw true greatness during the late 17th and 18th centuries. At this point, Sultan Moulay Ismaïl arrived on the scene, and transformed it into the Spanish-Moorish gem it is today. Ismaïl decided he would protect Meknes with a series of steep defensive walls (they stand at an imposing 15-meters-tall), peppered with nine wonderfully ornamental gates.  Bab el-Mansour Meknes, Morocco, arabic mosaics

From its dusty, sand-colored exterior, Meknes could almost be a mirage of an age gone by, yet this is a city that becomes even more dazzling once you venture inside the walls. Architectural survivors from days of extravagance gone by include a handful of palaces, a collection of ten hammams, and no less than 25 mosques.

3. Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou

If you don’t recognize the Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou from tourism promotion, you’ll certainly know it from the various movies and TV shows. This striking community of earthy buildings is located in Ouarzazate province, on the southern slopes of the High Atlas. Although the Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou looks like it could date back to biblical times – indeed, it has Kasbah Dades Gorge LG 553201505_703b6bba59_bdoubled for the Holy Land in a number of movies – the oldest dwellings here dates back no earlier than the 17th century.

What makes Ait-Ben-Haddou so unique is the uniformity of the building material, juxtaposed with the uniqueness of each individual structure. The vivid clay brick from which the city is formed makes it see as though the entire place has been carved into the High Atlas itself; quite a sight to behold. Some of the houses are humble, while others are small palaces. The complex is surrounded by defensive walls, punctuated with a baffle gate and angle towers. Once you have seen the Ksar in the flesh, you’ll never forget it.

4. Medina of Marrakesh

Marrakesh’s famous medina is without doubt among the most enchanting in the world. The city was founded between 1070 and 1072 by the Almoravids, and became a major hub of commerce, religion and power in North Africa and beyond. As such, Marrakesh’s medina grew to become a vast and impressive walled metropolis of palaces, mosques, schools, markets and more.

Marrakesh Medina, Narrow Street Medina, MoroccoMuch of the ancient city survives today. Among refulgent highlights in the Medina of Marrakesh is the Koutoubia Mosque, the Saâdian Tombs, and Bahia Palace. The architects of the medina also recognized the need for lush green space within the medina, so idyllic retreats such as Gardens of Aguedal, Ménara and the Palm Grove were planted – and still exist now. Marrakesh’s ‘main stage’ is Jamaâ El Fna Square, am intoxicating hubbub of musicians, storytellers, snake charmers, and hucksters. Few UNESCO World Heritage sites anywhere in the world are able to transport visitors into the past so readily.

5. Archaeological Site of Volubilis

Much of what the Romans constructed in North Africa has long succumbed to the ravages of time. Yet the Archaeological Site of Volubilis offers a fascinating window into how a Roman settlement in Morocco looked and functioned. Volubilis was originally constructed as a Phoenician-Carthaginian settlement in the 3rd century BC, and under the Romans in the 1st and 2nd centuries BC, Volubilis flourished with the addition of walls, basilica, Archeological Site of Volubis, Morocco, Romans, Roman Ruinstemples and triumphal arch. A healthy olive crop was harvested from the surrounding countryside (close to the city of Meknes), and this is where much of Volubilis’ wealth came from. This afforded residents large town houses with grand mosaic floors, and decadent bronze and marble statues.

Such things are still being discovered by archeologists in Volubilis today. In this respect, Volubilis is akin to a mesmerizing open-air museum, with a fresh surprise around every corner. UNESCO deems Volubilis “an exceptionally preserved example of a large Roman colonial town on the fringes of the Empire”, making it a must-see for anyone visiting this part of Morocco.

And not forgetting…

Morocco has four other UNESCO World Heritage sites, which didn’t quite make it into our top five list. Therefore, our runners-up are the picturesque Medina of Essaouira (formerly Mogador), the Medina of Tétouan (formerly known as Titawin), the Portuguese City of Mazagan (El Jadida), and glorious Rabat, which became a UNESCO World Heritage site in its entirety in 2012. Additional to those Moroccan sites already certified by UNESCO, there are many more than currently reside on the ‘Tentative List’. Keep your eyes out for the likes of Oasis de Figuig, Moulay Idriss Zerhoun, Mosquée de Tinmel and El Gour. The full list can be found here.

¹ Source: whc.unesco.org/en/list/170

Morocco

Our small group tour to Morocco has been especially crafted to get to know the friendly people of Morocco and delve deeper into the culture and traditions of this fascinating country.  We’ll be able to get a sense of how the people live and how history and geography play a part in their lives. This small group tour (maximum 10 people) has been tailor made for Unique Backroad Journeys.  With this deeper, more meaningful travel experience you are certain to have memories for a lifetime. On our small group trip we will eat lunch with the Berbers, walk in the high Atlas Mountains, sleep in a first class tent in the Sahara, wander the palm groves of oases, while staying in boutique hotels and traditional guesthouses called riads. Our adventure will take us to two UNESCO World heritage sites including the famous square in Marrakesh, Jeema-el-Fna, to enjoy the carnival like atmosphere that comes alive at dusk with storytellers, musicians, acrobats, snake charmers and delicious Moroccan food stands.

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Puglia Named as One of Wine Enthusiast Magazines Best Wine Travel Destinations 2013

Every year the editors of Wine Enthusiast Magazine travel the world in search of the best wine and food as well as the most exciting places to visit.  Puglia is on the list for 2013. The magazine describes Puglia as a “magical wine destination” and “a thin peninsula packed tight with stunning beauty and surrounded by some of the bluest waters in Europe.”It’s an undiscovered land with an enviable quality of life.” According to Wine Enthusiast, “Puglia offers wines for all tasting types.”  Read more here.

Among the variety of wines praised by the magazine are the reds from Uva di Troia, Bombino Nero and Aglianico, the white Bombino Bianco and the sweet Moscato di Trani. The editors describe Puglia’s local wines as showing “ripe berry nuances, inky concentration and soft tannins.”  Also mentioned are the crisp white wines made from the Malvasia, Fiano, Chardonnay and Greco grapes.

Puglia produces more wine than any other area in Italy.  The grapes of Puglia ripen most of the year due to the mild, dry climate.  Because of this, the grapes have a higher sugar content.  In years past, much of the grape harvest was shipped to France for mixing with French grapes where the growing season is shorter and the climate rainier. Now the focus is on quality rather than quantity and growers are adopting new practices to produce better and better wines.